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A kalimavkion (Greek: καλυμμαύχιον), kalymmavchi (καλυμμαύχι), or, by metathesis of the word’s internal syllables, kamilavka (Russian: камилавка), is a clerical headdress worn by Orthodox Christian and Eastern Catholic monks (in which case it is black) or awarded to clergy (in which case it may be red or purple). An approximate equivalent in the Latin Church is the camauro (from Latin camellacium/camelaecum, from Greek kamelauchion).

In Byzantine times the term kamelaukion was a more general one for formal headgear, including items worn by the Imperial family.

The kalimavkion is a stiff cylindrical head covering, similar to a stovepipe hat but without a brim. It first came into use after the reforms of Patriarch Nikon in the 1600s. The kalimavkion is worn during services; at other times, the softer skufia is worn in its place. The specific shape and coloring will differ between the various ethnic traditions such as:

. In the Greek tradition, monks wear a simple black kalimavkion, covered by a black veil (epanokalimavkion), but ordained clergy (both married and monastic) wear a kalimavkion with a flattened conical brim at the top. Hierodeacons (monastic deacons) remove the veil when they vest for services, but hieromonks (monastic priests) do not. In the Greek tradition, nuns do not normally wear a kalimavkion, but rather just the veil.
. In the Russian tradition, priests and deacons, if awarded it, wear a kamilavka that is normally taller than the Greek style, widens as it rises, and is flat at the top. Monks wear a black kamilavka with a black veil. Russian nuns also wear the kamilavka with a veil. Hieromonks and hierodeacons wear the same black kamilavka and veil as non-ordained monastics.
. In the Serbian Orthodox Church clergy of all ranks wear a black kalimavkion which is flat at the top. Monastics wear a black veil over the kalimavkion during services. Bishops wear a black kalimavkion with a wide purple band at the bottom and remove the veil when they are outside the church.
. Syriac Catholic Priests and bishops in the past have worn a kalimavkion (unlike their Orthodox counterparts who wear a turban). However, this practice has faded to only a few wearing it and has almost explicitly been used by the patriarch only.

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